AALL Spectrum

AALL Spectrum / March/April 2020 / Volume 24, Number 4

AALL Spectrum / Published by American Association of Law Libraries

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34 AALL SPECTRUM | WWW.AALLNET.ORG The classroom end of these deci- sions led me to do a presentation last May at the Teaching the Teachers Conference at Georgia State College of Law. I have always struggled with selecting and implementing technol- ogy in my classroom. As I described in the presentation, most technology teaching discussions leave me on either end of a teaching continuum: at one end experiencing extreme technol- ogy FOMO (fear of missing out), or at the other so overwhelmed that I start considering using transparencies and ditto machines. However, I have found two analytical frameworks— Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) and Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, Redefinition (SAMR)—that have helped me organize my evaluation and selection of classroom technology. TPACK v. SAMR Since giving that presentation last May, I have further concluded that both frameworks can be equally effective in thinking about technology outside the classroom, as well. Both TPACK, which focuses on the kinds of knowledge nec- essary to effectively teach and train with technology, and SAMR, which focuses on the intellectual demand of technol- ogies, can be used to examine, select, and think about individual technology options irrespective of the setting. A Closer Look at TPACK The basic idea behind TPACK is that an instructor must possess under- standing of each of the different and individual types of knowledge, as well as how they overlap and work together, to effectively teach within a technol- ogy-enhanced learning environment. The framework breaks down teaching with technology into three basic types of knowledge: content knowledge (CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK), and tech- nological knowledge (TK). Content knowledge (CK) represents knowledge of the specific subject matter. If we use legal research instruction as an example, content knowledge would be the instructor's understanding of legal research, research tools, and the TECHNOLOGY underlying relationship between legal sources. Pedagogical knowledge (PK) describes an understanding of effective teaching, instruction techniques, and learning theories. Finally, technological knowledge (TK) stands for a general understanding of technology and how it works. Technology knowledge is the most nebulous of the three types of knowledge, but it really just represents a general understanding and acknowledg- ment that tech exists. TPACK's analytical value for instruction stems from the intersections of the three basic types of knowledge. The model calls these intersections technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK), technological content knowledge (TCK), and pedagogical content knowl- edge (PCK). These intersections repre- sent the mixtures of types of knowledge that are created from the overlaps of the three basic knowledge types. Effective instructors need to understand not only the three basic types of knowl- edge, but also their mixtures (overlaps) and how they work together. The exam- ples below illustrate the framework's type-overlap requirements. For example, if we were going to use video modules to explain tax resources to a student or trainee, TPACK tells us we need to master several different types of knowledge, as well as knowl- edge-type overlaps. We need content knowledge (tax law research), technol- ogy knowledge (how to use technology), and pedagogical knowledge (how to teach effectively). We'll also need to understand how each of these works together. Specifically, we'll need to think about: 1. PCK (P+C): How do you effectively train your users on how to use tax materials? 2. TPK (T+P): How will the videos change the typical training dynamic? 3. TCK (T+C): How has technology changed information resources in tax law? TPACK breaks down teaching with technology into its component required knowledge types. Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) Technological Knowledge (TK) Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) Content Knowledge (CK) CONTEXTS

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